Normally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) consists of materials which are usually industrial wastes enriched with radioactive elements found in the environment, such as uraniumthorium and potassium and any of their decay products, such as radium and radon. NORM can be found everywhere, even in reservoir rock. When NORM accumulates, it can be hazardous and once it is exposed to the environment through human activities such as oil and gas exploration. It is classified as Technologically Enhanced Normally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM).

TENORM is of Low Specific Activity (LSA) and it is commonly found within the well fluid handling system as a scaling in areas of turbulence, separator deposits and where temperature or pressure changes. Workers who are exposed to it without any equipment to manage or control it could be disastrous.

Radiation hazard can be external or internal and there are a few ways to reduce its effect.
Monitoring it is one of them.
This includes:

• Determination of Background Radiation Levels
• External Radiation Monitoring
• Surface Contamination Monitoring
• Airborne Contamination Monitoring
• Radon (Rn-222) and Thoron (Rn-220) Progeny (In Situ)
• Effluent analysis
• Long Term Radiation Monitoring

The instrumentations that are involved in detection or in measurement are as follows:

• The GM Probe (Pancake Detector)
• Personal Dosimeter
• Doserate Meter
• Film Badges

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